CogniFit's Science blog: Do Neurons Have A Simple Life?

Do Neurons Have A Simple Life?

Neurons flood the body while feeding information throughout. It is a cell that is essentially responsible for the transfer of information and electrical impulses all around the body. Few fully understand the importance they play in accomplishing the simplest things in life. But in reality, the life of a neuron is far from simple.

Neurons transfer electrical charges between each other in order to get from one point to the next. As a result, all of the information and data within is transferred in an electrical manner. The study of neuroscience has taken off as scientists and researchers continue to learn as much as possible about the human species and how we learn what we do.

In order to fully understand how these cells work, you must first look at the various parts that make up the neuron. Each has a nucleus that acts as the center and is how the cell is managed. Without a nucleus the cell would be dead. You can think of the nucleus as the processing brain.

One of the neuron consists of dendrites that act as the receiving portion. It appears on the edge of the neuron and assists with the transfer of information. On the opposite end is the axon, which is the sending extension. All information leaves through the axon and the terminal buttons at the end of the arms.

So how do neurons fully work? They begin by starting at the axon and sending an electrical impulse of data through the arms. Because no two neurons actually touch, they pass data from one to the next over the synapse. The synapse is the space between the axon and dendrite and the passing of the information is known as the synaptic transmission.

As soon as the synaptic transmission occurs, the data will then enter through the dendrites. This is when the electrical signal successfully passes from the first neuron to the second. The signal will then move to the axon and go through the synapse to the next neuron’s dendrite. It is a continuous process until all of the information has been adequately transferred in a way that we can fully understand the details.

As you might imagine, it is a highly complex process just to take in a single thought or group of information. And to think on any given day we will take in hundreds of thousands of pieces of information and use many of our cognitive skills. This is precisely why we are remarkable species and neurons help us make it all possible.