CogniFit's Science blog: Basic Brain Parts And Their Functions

Basic Brain Parts And Their Functions

The brain is a complex organ that is responsible for much of our body’s health. The different brain parts work in conjunction with each other to process information and release certain hormones that cause us to experience emotions that we can physically feel. Here is a brief rundown of the brain parts and their basic functions.

The brain is composed primarily of the three main components. Of these three main components, the cerebrum comprises the largest area of the brain. The cerebrum (cortex) is responsible for deep thought and processes that really require you to think. It consists of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal, and occipital lobe.

These lobes each have their own assignments and play a huge role in our thought processes. For example, the frontal lobe, located conveniently in the front of the brain, is responsible for certain speech communication, physical and motor control movement, emotional feelings, and solving problems.

The cerebrum is comprised of two sides, known as the left and right hemispheres of the brain. The left side of the cerebrum is known to handle logic while the right hemisphere tackles creativity and imagination. The cells or axons in the middle of the two hemispheres that connect the two sides make up what is called the corpus callosum.

The neocortex comprises most of the human brain. This is what sets humans apart from other mammals and gives us the unique ability to consciously understand our surroundings and understand complex problems and questions. This is how we are able to comprehend and speak language to communicate and permits deep thought processes. The neocrtex is truly what makes us human.

The little brain, or cerebellum, is a lot like the cerebrum in that it has two equal sides. It has a major function in that it helps us regulate balance and the ability to move and coordinate our movements. Many animals have fully developed cerebellums but don’t have the neocortex to give them more in-depth thinking abilities.

Deep inside the cerebellum lays the limbic system. This part of the brain is responsible for giving us our feelings and emotions. It is where the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdale and hippocampus rest. These areas allow us to understand and make sense out of information we get from our senses.

The brain stem makes up the last most important part of our brain. Of all the brain parts, the brain stem is solely responsible for handling basic life priorities like the beat of the heart and breathing to allow air into our lungs.