CogniFit's Science blog: The Different Types Of Dyslexia

The Different Types Of Dyslexia

What exactly is dyslexia? Many people think of dyslexia as a reading problem where someone who is dyslexic sees the words jumbled around on the page. This is just one form of dyslexia though. This article will outline the different types of dyslexia and provide you with an explanation of each.

The meaning of dyslexia based on its etymology is interesting and important to know. First, you have “dys” which means problematic.

Next, you have “lexia” which means words or letters. So the literal definition of “dys””lexia” means problems with words.

For most people, that is what dyslexia is, a problem individuals have with words. However, it is now being used to cover a wide range of symptoms, from problems with reading, writing, and spelling to hearing and visual difficulties. That is why there is so many different types of dyslexia.

The different types are:

Surface Dyslexia - This form of dyslexia if where an individual makes mistakes where the rules of English pronunciation are inconsistent. The best example of this dyslexia is when the word “bowl” is read as though it rhymed with “howl”.

Phonological Dyslexia - This is a form of dyslexia where an individual is unable to grasp the phonic nature of the English language. This individual has trouble reading new words because they are unable to understand the links between the individual sounds and the letters on the page.

Double-Deficit Dyslexia - This is simply a form of dyslexia where an individual suffers from both surface and phonological dyslexia.

Auditory and Visual Dyslexia - These two forms of dyslexia are fairly similar because they are both related to neurological weaknesses in the magnocellular cells of the thalamus area of the brain. It is possible for an individual with poor hearing skills but average visual skills to be diagnosed with visual dyslexia, and vice versa.

Orthographic Dyslexia - Orthography is the set of symbols or letters that make up a language, such as the 26 letters that make up our alphabet. An individual who suffers from this dyslexia has trouble identifying and manipulating letters in reading, writing and spelling.

It can be shocking to know in our mind that something that seemed so basic at first, a simple problem with reading words, can have so many different types. Dyslexia is a complicated learning disorder that can affect everything from reading to listening, and most of the time goes undiagnosed. Use the knowledge you have gained from this article to help you watch out for dyslexia so it can be diagnosed and addressed.